You Can Easily Make Money Online With Online Writing Jobs

Yes, you can make money online easily when you opt for online writing jobs. If you are looking for such a job, things don’t become slow, difficult and expensive. Unlike conventional writing jobs, the online version allows you to work right from comfort of your home and get paid as well. Depending upon your choice, you can select a topic you are comfortable with. This job offers immense flexibility. For instance, you can choose your topic; decide on number of hours you wish to work, work from home or a cafĂ©.

There are many writers who make money online working in different job profile. For instance, you can become an article writer write short news items, themes and topics. Then there are ghostwriters who are basically writers that have a specialization to write for another person portraying as if they are that person. Presently, the freelance writers are in great demand. The number of freelance writers available is increasing every second as it offers numerous benefits. For example, you can select the topic and when the work gets finished, you can start another writing assignment. Similarly, here you have the freedom of deciding from where to work, when to work and how long to work.

Of course, when it comes to freelancing job, you ought to focus on your freelancing skills. To begin with, you are expected to offer quality writing in order to meet all needs of the client. Ability to express your ideas in a concise, clear and correct manner can bring an instant fame as a perfect freelancer. The articles you write needs to generate substantial interest among the readers. If you are writing for online businesses, make sure the articles are SEO optimized. This is partly because these businesses use the articles to meet online business promotional needs. If optimized accurately, the websites end up receiving good number of viewers and top ranking in search engines.

These days, a lot of websites need fresh content at regular intervals. The content in question could be anything – blog post, article, guest post, forum posts, and more. This means there is no dearth of writing assignments. All that you need to do is to browse the internet to find the right work.

Fortunately, there are several websites that are of great help in finding online writing assignments. For instance, you can refer to websites like Freelancer, Upwork or PeoplePerHour to find one job of your liking. Thousands have already benefitted from these sites and you can benefit as well.

In case you are willing to spend a small sum of money, a website like Paid Online Writing Jobs can be of great help. Remember – the site offers you 24*7 customer support and maintains a huge database of available jobs. You just have to spend a little money. This way you can find all relevant information. You can also go through numerous customer testimonials furnished in the website.

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Will Robots Take Our Jobs?

The degree to which robots will take our jobs will largely depend on whether robots can effectively substitute or augment our work.

There are various scenarios at play here that will determine whether robots will take over our jobs:

1. We allow robots to voluntarily substitute our jobs because we are no longer prepared to do the work ourselves. In fact, we are happy for robots to take over our jobs. Examples include military service, car production and manufacturing, space exploration, underwater exploration, duct cleaning, crime fighting, fixing oil spills, investigating hazardous environments, and commercialized agriculture.

2. Robots can be more efficient and effective than humans in doing manual, repetitive, boring, and dangerous tasks. As such, we are involuntarily substituted by robots even when we are still able to work in our jobs. Examples include truck driving, parcel delivery, inventory stocking, and floor cleaning.

3. Robots can be deployed in industries where there are acute labor shortages. There's no choice but for robots to perform jobs that we don't have enough qualified people to do the work. This problem will grow exponentially when larger numbers of Baby Boomers retire over the next decade or two. Robots will fill jobs that this generation is abandoning.

4. Robots are deployed in industries where labor cost pressures will dictate the decision to automate. If labor becomes too expensive, then organizations will have no choice but to use lower-cost robots to substitute human labor.

5. We co-develop robots with developers that will augment our work and free us up to do higher value work. This includes decision-making, conceptualizing and analyzing. Instead, robots will co-exist with us in workplaces and transforms our jobs into new ones.

6. Robots will not take over our jobs because we cannot teach or program machines effectively to analyze or conceptualize things, be creative and innovative, and be interactive with humans naturally. These are human tasks that cannot be done by robots, yet. Robots cannot look you in the eye, consider peoples' feelings, moods and behaviors, feel emotional, empathy and sympathy, make a person feel taken care of or loved, establish trust and respect, be an independent critical thinker, and make sense of complicated concepts and the complicated world we live in.

7. We can learn and acquire new skills and change our jobs well before robots take over our jobs. By anticipating these changes and future-proofing our jobs early, we can be future-ready ourselves when robots do eventually come and appear at our door-step. What's important is to have the skills that can fill an employment vacancy and remain employable.

Let's stop and think about this for a minute.

Millennials and Gen Z'ers are already changing the job market. They are more motivated by purpose than a paycheck.

Businesses can't simply throw money at them particularly if they are trying to control costs and maintain profitability levels. It's no surprise that industries like hospitality, retail and consumer-products are now facing a significant strain in recruiting.

To solve this problem, many countries like the US and Japan are turning to robots to fill many jobs when labor supply falls short. It's a matter of supply and demand of labor.

Simply put, robots will perform many jobs that people don't want to do for various reasons. There's no choice but to rely on robots to replace our jobs.

We voluntary allow robots to replace our jobs.

I can relate to this with my own children. Asking them to clean or mop the floor, or just sweeping the garden can end up in the war of words and regrets later on.

I wish I had a domestic robot to do all these chores!

Let's take some industry examples.

There's a growing shortage of truck drivers in the US The trucking industry needs to find and hire over 900,000 new drivers to meet increasing demand. It's a goal that seems valu unachievable given how younger workers are approaching their careers.

That's why technology companies like Uber are heavily investing in self-driving vehicles. This is critical when there's a pressing need to transport almost 50 million tons of freight trucked across the country each year.

With the current job climate, robots don't represent a replacement risk for workers. Drivers will work alongside robots until all human drivers are replaced someday by driverless trucks.

Robots are becoming absolutely critical for solving labor shortages in some industries.

In the restaurant industry, robots are taking over less-desirable tasks like washing dishes and cleaning floors. This has paved the way for employees to develop more technical skills around robot maintenance and fleet management – the high-level stuff.

Robots are, therefore, transforming lower level jobs to higher level jobs.

While old jobs are lost, new jobs are also created.

The net effect of job losses and job creation will depend on where you live, which country and industry you currently work in, your occupation, your level of skills and experience, and your employer's ability and capacity to automate using robots.

In construction, another industry facing a significant labor shortage, robots are filling the gap in roles like welding. Not coincidentally, construction companies are recruiting for new types of job positions that specifically oversee cutting edge hardware.

US investment bank Goldman Sachs employed over 600 stock traders at its peak. Thanks to machine-learning algorithms capable of making complex trades, these 600 traders have been reduced to just two. Instead, about one-third of its workforce is now employed as computer engineers.

At the individual level, robots will take our jobs if we have not adequately future-proofed ourselves and proactively planned for the inevitable presence of robots in the workplace.

Here's the problem.

We have embraced technology in our lives that we are so thirsty for more. That same thirst for technology will also impact our job security. It's a two-edged sword that we need to manage.

It is a fact that there is high employment in some industries and there will be high unemployment in other industries.

Our thirst for technology has effectively "re-balancing" or transformed jobs across many organizations, occupations, industries, and countries.

The ease by which labor can freely move across country borders and organizational boundaries can mitigate the impact of job losses if we are prepared to move and stay elsewhere or do different things.

Using the example given above, rather than looking for welders or people with welding skills, construction companies are now looking for people with technical skills and experience to operate high-tech cutting-edge hardware for automated welding.

There will be complexity involved in operating these cutting-edge machines. There will be higher level training needed to up-skill operators to competently operate such machines.

It's assumed that people with welding skills are now expected to be retrained and to acquire new competencies about automated welding machines if they still want to remain in their occupation.

These welders must be mentally and intellectually capable to absorb new high tech learning. If they cannot "take in" new information and knowledge, then robots will certainly replace their jobs and they will be out of work.

In this scenario, the speed by which career welders have to acquire new skills can be very fast. If they cannot up-skill within a short period of time, then their jobs will definitely be lost to robots or to other people who can acquire new skills faster than them.

The rate of absorption of new skills and knowledge is therefore critical to protect our jobs from robots.

The bottom line is that complacency will kill jobs.

A head-in-the-sand mentality will not help any worker who is faced with the prospect of robots taking over their jobs.

It's not a question of if, but when.

It's inevitable; robots are coming for our jobs!

Be prepared for it.

As such, we must future-proof ourselves and our jobs by anticipating all potential impacts of robots in our workplaces and take immediate action to mitigate all known risks.

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How Many Jobs Should I Include on My Resume?

You have finally decided to leave your current “dead-end” position and look for a more challenging and enjoyable career.

Where do you start?

Update and polish that resume of course! A key question you should be asking yourself at this juncture is how many jobs you should include on your resume. As a professional, you likely fall into one of two scenarios:

Tenured Professional: If you have been in the workforce for many years and have held several different positions, you may be wondering how many of your past jobs you should list on your resume.

Novice Professional: You may have just earned your college degree and are wondering what hiring managers want to see on your resume.

Most Hiring Managers are looking for a two to three job window, at least. This window should always include your most recent job as Hiring Managers like to know where people are coming from and what they have been doing leading up to the submission of their resume.

In a perfect world, we find that listing at least three jobs on your resume gives it depth and substance. By highlighting your last three positions, you are able to show your career progression, which is a critical message to relay when you are asking to be considered for a new opportunity.

We do understand listing three positions may be more challenging for those who haven’t been in the workforce for long or have held only one or two jobs in their career. If this is your situation, don’t worry! Since honesty is the best policy and creating fictitious jobs to add bulk to your resume will land you right back in the unemployment line, you may have to stray from the norm in order to add quality and showcase your experience and talents on your resume. Volunteer work is something that most people don’t considering adding to their resume, but in reality, listing your volunteer efforts not only says a lot about you personally, but also helps to add depth to your resume, explain your lack of employment, or speak to what you were doing during employment gaps.

Additionally, if you are a recent college grad struggling to add content to your resume, consider listing professional organizations you are or were affiliated with while in school such as business fraternities, participation in student government, etc.

Stay tuned as the next article in this series will discuss the rule on listing relevant work in your resume.

Have any questions? Ask the clinical trial staffing team here and we will be happy to help.

Investing in a Lifetime of Success,

Angela Roberts

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Don’t Fall for the Jobs Data Deception

The June nonfarm payrolls report blew past expectations, with 287,000 jobs created versus 175,000 expected.

This is a stark contrast to the downward revision for May, which left the month at just 11,000 jobs created. That’s a substantial shift from month to month, but it’s important to point out that a large part of these new jobs are low-paying seasonal positions.

In fact, leisure and hospitality (think hotels, restaurants, etc.) saw an increase of 59,000 jobs, more than double its 27,000 average for the year. We also saw a bump of 14,000 jobs added by performing arts and spectator sports, as many families spend the summer doing activities with their kids.

Another 39,000 jobs “created” in June were the result of a strike ending at Verizon. Retail, which is also a seasonal sector, added 30,000 jobs.

That’s roughly an added 142,000 jobs related to seasonal trends and a one-off strike ending.

In short, the jobs report is a very noisy picture of our economy – one that doesn’t give you the whole picture.

The reality is that our economy is on much shakier ground than this latest report portrays. Let me explain…

After the June jobs data was released, the Dow Jones Industrial Average jumped 100 points and left investors with hopes of a stronger economy in the second half of the year.

But that’s not likely the case.

I focus on broader economic data that is less noisy and more concrete than an estimated jobs report.

I’m talking about durable goods orders. The data is heavily watched by economists and investors, and is used to gain a firmer grasp on economic growth. Currently, this data point is signaling that a bull-market-killing recession may be just around the corner.

Not So Durable Goods

The advance report for May durable goods orders fell 2.2%, compared to expectations for a 0.5% decline. Durable goods orders, which include items ranging from machinery and metals to transportation equipment and computers, are a sign of what corporations are willing to spend on investments.

A declining durable goods orders report, like we saw in May, is telling us that corporations reduced spending in May. One month is just one month though…

Orders increase consistently going into each of these recessions, and then fall off. What we are seeing this time is more of stagnant growth… so far, anyway. We have yet to see orders fall off a cliff yet, but as the latest orders show, we are nearing that cliff.

What a lot of analysts will do is strip out the transportation equipment orders, since these can have extreme swings, like the 5.6% drop in May and the 8.5% rise in April. Once we take out that data, it’s considered core capital goods.

In May, core capital goods orders fell 0.7%, the fifth decline in the past seven months.

Income Despite a Fading Bull Market

Add to this weak data the sluggish 1.1% growth rate in the first quarter of this year and ongoing declines in corporate profit and revenue, and we have an economy on the brink of a recession.

This is something I have explained recently: Our seven-year bull market is on its last legs and may very well be dying of old age. What this means is that our Federal Reserve’s hands are tied – interest rates can’t go higher from here. At least not for another decade or so.

That’s why I continue to hunt for the best possible ways to generate stable and consistent income, regardless of the market environment.

In a no-income world, you don’t have to settle for a measly 1.25% from a bank CD, or even the 2% from the average S&P 500 stock.

Instead, I look to consistently generate yields of more than 10% – more than five times the alternatives mentioned above.

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Innovate the Steve Jobs Way

In the recent webinar, "Innovate the Steve Jobs Way: 7 Insanely Different Principles for Breakthrough Success," Carmine Gallo shared seven principles for innovation which he learned from studying Steve Jobs for many years. The webinar was a prelude to his book The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs: Insanely Different Principles for Breakthrough Success . I found it extremely useful to attend the webinar before reading the book and I combined what I learned in the webinar with what I learned from the book. I have also expanded what I wrote in a previous blog post. The book provides concrete examples of how Steve Jobs innovates and the author conducted several interviews with former Apple employees.

To support what he says in the book, Carmine Gallo also looked at what other innovators were successfully doing. He defines innovation as, "A new way of doing things that result in positive change." How can you innovate the way you do your job? What innovations are occurring in other industries that you can transfer to yours?

Carmine Gallo has identified seven principles to guide innovation based on what he has learned from studying Steve Jobs, the Co-founder and CEO of Apple. The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs has 15 chapters, an introductory one and two chapters devoted to each principle. Though the book presents a lot of information on the way Steve Jobs approaches innovation, there are many examples of others who are innovating in similar ways and achieving success.

Principle One: Do What You Love

Passion is everything, and it keeps you going when you face inevitable setbacks. Be obsessed and improve the areas that you love. To achieve success, passion is not enough – follow your obsessions, tailor them to your skills, and focus on what you can make money from. What is your calling and your destiny? How can you change the world?

A simple formula is Success = Passion + Skills + Market Demand

Principle Two: Put a Dent in the Universe

Innovation does not take place in a vacuum. Have a vision, because innovation cannot occur without one. What's the bigger picture and how can you share your vision with enthusiasts who will make your vision a reality. How is your product or service going to change the world? How can you leave the world a better place than you found it? How can you make your customers' lives better?

Margaret Mead's quote, "A small group of thoughtful people could change the world. Indeed, it's the only thing that ever has," encapsulates this principle.

Principle Three: Kick Start Your Brain

Seek our new and novel experiences, and bombard your brain with them. Who is doing something remarkable that you can learn from? Steve Jobs studied the Four Seasons Hotel and Mercedes Benz because they are aces when it comes to remarkable customer experiences. Jobs introduced a Concierge Service in the Apple Store based on what he learned from observing the Four Seasons Hotel.

A critical part of this principle is to make connections among disparate things and force yourself outside of your physical and mental comfort zone. To live a vision requires creative thinking which requires immersion in novel experiences.

New experiences expand the way you think. Surround yourself with people from different cultures. Experiment, and try new things. What are two things that you can do differently to improve the way in which you deliver your product or service?

Principle Four: Sell Dreams Not Products

Understand your customers, and help them to fulfill their dreams. Get to know them better than they know themselves. How can you change your customers' worlds? Create remarkable customer experiences and market that.

Your customers often do not know what they want, so be a linchpin as marketing guru Seth Godin says and anticipate what they need before they do. It's a twist to the concept of build it and they will come, to build it and convince them that they should come.

Principle 5: Say No to 1,000 Things

Take the road less traveled. Remove distractions so you can focus on the core product. Eliminate distractions from the customer experience. Don't spread yourself too thin, and go for simplicity. Steve Job told Nike's CEO Mark Parker , "Get rid of the crappy stuff and focus on the good stuff." Go for simplicity and elegance.

Simplify and focus on your product and service offerings. What are you best at? What is one thing that you do extremely well? Focus on it and simplify.

Principle Six: Create Insanely Great Experiences

Create emotional connections with your customers. What are five ways you can enrich the lives of your customers? What relationships are you forming with your customers? Look outside your industry for examples. Create memorable experiences so you have rabid fans. Before you innovate, hold your customer in your mind's eye, and proceed from there.

Principle: Master the Message

Effectively communicate your vision. Innovate around the way you communicate the vision. What are master presenters and communicators doing? Emulate them. Be a great storyteller, and be consistent in your messaging.

I enjoyed reading The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs: Insanely Different Principles for Breakthrough Success because I had to stop several times and think about what I was reading. The many examples demonstrated how others were using these seven principles with great success, and I understood how I could use them as well. I also learned about innovative products that others were delivering.

For instance, DNA 11 creates art with their customer's DNA and became a multi-million dollar business in five years. The owners Adrian Salamunovic and Nazim Ahmed did conduct focus group interviews to decide if there was a need for their product, they created the product then created the demand for it. They also noticed that some of their customers were asking for art with their pets' DNA, so they offered that to other customers who might not have thought of that.

What Carmine Gallo has shown in his book is that innovation does not necessarily mean crating something radically new. Sometimes it is simply doing something in an entirely new way. This is a practical book written in a clear manner. I recommend The Innovation Secrets of Steve Jobs: Insanely Different Principles for Breakthrough Success .

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HTML and Web Design

HTML is one of the most creative ways to start a professional skill. It is extremely easy to learn, and its well worth the effort needed to create helpful websites using HTML. With only a few weeks of studying and working, users can already understand the basic features of HTMl and its useful applications in web design in the business world.

Basic HTML is limited to only a few simple, yet important features. Formatting text should be the first step in using HTML. Formatting, such as using paragraphs, line breaks, and tables, create the structure of the website. Later, more challenging features can be attempted, and more complex variations can be used to design a more professional style in your websites. This includes such things as frames, layering, and anchor tags.

At first, HTML may look foreign to the average person, but learning HTML is not difficult. There are no complicated equations in formatting, and no outside knowledge is required. However, there are many outside sources to learn HTML. HTML help [] is available from many useful websites, books, and people.

There is always room for improvement when designing websites. Practice is one of the most useful methods in learning HTML. Over time, your websites will be much better with more complex forms of HTML. With a lot of practice and persistence, your websites will become both attractive and profitable.

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HTML Troubleshooting – Bullet Point Lists

Bullet points are a great way of allowing readers to scan a page and quickly find the information they need. This is important for websites as visitors only take a few seconds to search for whatever they want. If information is not found quickly, then readers will move on to another website. Some web pages contain a lot of information which makes it difficult to find specific information. The use of short bullet points helps to break up blocks of text and direct visitors to important details. Bullet point lists are created for websites using HTML coding. This article explains the different types of lists which may be created with HTML coding and looks at the use of images and icons to separate list items.

There are two types of bulleted lists. A numbered list is referred to as an “ordered list”. This would be used for a set of instructions which should be followed in a sequence of 1, 2, 3 etc. Letters of the alphabet may also be used for an ordered list. In this case, each item would commence with a, b, c and so on. Authors of formal documents might use Roman numerals I, II, II, IV, although this is less common on web pages.

An “un-ordered” list is a bulleted list of items separated by a dot, circle, square or a small image known as an icon.

The majority of bullet list items are separated by a black dot. This makes the list easy to read:

• First item

• Second item

• Third item

The dot can be changed to a square or circle by a simple change to the HTML code. The use of a coloured dot, square or image requires the use of a CSS style sheet. Using an image for a bullet point helps the list items to blend in with the colour theme of the website and gives a professional look to web pages. Images for bullet point lists are generally in the size range of 8×8 pixels to 12×12 pixels. Larger icons of 16×16 pixels are also used on web pages to attract attention to specific items of information.

Images and icons for bullet point list may be found on the internet, but care should be taken to ensure that there are no copyrights or restrictions on use before downloading and using an image on a website. It is also possible to create icons from images by reducing the image to an appropriate size.

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Lion Stuffed Animals and the Lions of Waza National Park

Lion stuffed animals are for that child (or adult) who is fond of large, wild cats. That is not to say, however, that lion stuffed animals are not just as loved by those that enjoy all types of soft toys which represent many of the wild animals roaming the planet today.

For owners of livestock living around the Waza National Park in Cameroon, having to live with the threat of lions is a part of their daily reality. While the loss of human life is not something that is often reported in the region, the loss of livestock is all too real, costing herders up to $ 1000 US per family every year. These losses were investigated in 2007, along with why the herders continued to have their animals graze so close to lion hunting grounds, by scientists from the Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University and the Institute of Environmental Sciences.

The team of scientists found that for those people who lived closest to the Waza National Park, they had much better access to both pastures and water. At the same time, however, these were the herders who sustained the greatest losses in livestock. For the herdsmen, they felt as though the benefits of better grazing and water for their animals, far outweighed what it cost them because of lion kills.

The researchers also found that for those that had cattle, the increase to the loss of both goat and sheep to lions was far greater likely because goat and sheep grazed alongside the cows much further away from the villages. In addition, with more numbers of goat and sheep mixed in amongst the cows, lions were able to approach the livestock without being noticed. According to herdsmen, some lions would even follow nomadic herds outside the park during the wet season while still others were bold enough to also raid livestock that remained in villages they passed by. For herdsmen that tried to chase away lions, they ended up with greater losses to their herds likely because with all the confusion of the scattering animals, lions were able to take advantage of the situation.

In one case, while some villagers were being interviewed by the researchers, about.62 miles from where they were, three sheep and a calf were found to have lion bite marks on their necks – killed while the interviews were taking place. The herdsmen indicated that while the lions took one sheep with them, they left the other animals behind – something that they found was all too familiar when it came to lions attacking their herds. Since the herdsmen are Muslim, they can't eat the leftover meat as it must be killed by a Muslim in order to consume it.

In Cameroon where lion attacks on domestic herds were taking place, because it was in an Islamic part of the country, dogs for guarding livestock was not an option (dogs are considered dirty and unclean in the Muslim faith), however, the research team did recommend putting in thorn enclosures (called bomas), or, increasing the number of herdsmen so as to change overall herding methods.

Lion stuffed animals have no interest whatsoever in killing [plush] sheep, goats, or cows. In fact, all of them will live in relative harmony in the same home if you so choose. So as to ensure your lion stuffed animals don't ever get out of hand, you must agree to form close and passionate attachments to these particular soft toys, which means they will expect for you to curl up in bed with them and take them with you wherever you go. Just remember to ensure your plush lion is treated like a member of the family and shower it with lots of love and attention as much as possible.

Copyright Shelley Vassall, 2010.

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Information Regarding the African Lion

A massively powerful animal, the African Lion weighs in the range of four hundred and fifty to five hundred and fifty pounds for healthy adult males whereas females are usually in the range of three hundred to three hundred and fifty pounds. Length is between six to eight feet for males and five to six feet for females, excluding a near three foot tail. Significantly bigger individuals have been recorded though. The largest wild lion ever weighed was close to seven hundred pounds. In captivity a specimen of well over eight hundred pound is documented. Height at shoulders is close to four feet for males and three and a half feet for females.

The lion’s coat is tawny in coloration and plain. Fur is short and somewhat coarse. Males are distinguished by their big mane that covers head, neck and part of belly and back. The mane is pale in coloration initially and goes through shades to golden to black as the lion ages. A black colored full mane signifies a mature lion with good breeding potential and is often preferred by lionesses for a partner.

In some parts of Africa, including Senegal and notably Tsavo, Kenya, maneless male lions are recorded, possibly in adaptation for the thorny habitat of that regions. Overall the built is muscular for both sexes. Lionesses are more athletic since it allows them to excel in hunting, their primary role in the pride. Male lions are bulkier since the added weight and strength allows them to fight off intruders and defend the pride’s territory.

Weapons include sharp claws and near three inch canines. Jaws are powerful and skull is bigger than any other cat specie. Eyes are set in front as in case of most land predators rather than on sides as in case of prey. The field of vision that is so essential for prey animals to look out for hunters comes with widely set eyes. This visual field is compromised in favor of better depth perception and binocular vision in lions that comes with relatively narrowly placed eyes, that aid them in judging distance from prey for pouncing upon it. Tail has a tuft of hair that covers the spine at the tip of tail. Belly skin is loose and shields the internal organs from viscous kicks of hunted ungulates during a kill.

Social cats, African Lions are apex and keystone predators. They live and hunt together, increasing the chances of success and survival for themselves and their cubs during harsh seasons. Lionesses do the bulk of hunting by laying a sort of organized trap for the hunted. Each lioness performs a specific role in this form of group hunting. Usually the weak and old are chosen and isolated from the herds. Then one or two lionesses expose themselves by breaking cover and charging at prey. The panicked animals take off and usually end up in jaws of a waiting lioness in their flight. A suffocating hold is placed by biting at the neck of smaller prey or covering the mouth and nose of larger prey.

In contrast with previous beliefs, it is now estimated that male lions take part in up to fifty to sixty percent of all hunts, being of particular use in taking down larger prey like buffalo. Other animals taken are of a vast variety depending upon the type and abundance of prey animals in a particular territory. These include eland, gemsbok, hartebeest, impala, kudu, warthog, wildebeest and zebra. At times even giraffes and the young of rhinos, hippos and elephants are killed. Opportunistic predators, lions will hunt and eat anything in times of need including carrion. Some lions in Botswana have been filmed killing elephants after a period of severe drought. Calves were regularly taken and occasionally so were adults under cover of darkness.

African Lions are at the top of food chain in African Savannah and do not refrain from wiping out competition if opportunity presents. Conflict with spotted hyenas are common who are often able to intimidate lionesses and cubs owing to their greater numbers, but suffer heavily when they come in contact with males. Adult male lions have been witnessed displaying rather savage behavior towards hyenas on occasions, actively chasing and killing off adult and the young of hyenas. At times lions have been recorded scavenging off hyena kills. Interspecies conflict with other big cats also occurs and African Lions often kill leopards and cheetahs and their young, possibly to ward off competition.

A number of subspecies of lions are recognized, based upon their area of distribution in Africa.

Panthera Leo Azandica (North East Congo lion) – North-eastern Congo

Panthera Leo Bleyenberghi (Southwest African or Katanga lion) – South-western Africa, Namibia, Botswana, Angola, Katanga (Zaire), Zambia and Zimbabwe

Panthera Leo Krugeri (Southeast African or Transvaal lion) – Transvaal region of South eastern Africa, including Kruger National Park

Panthera Leo Nubica (East African or Massai lion) – East Africa from Ethiopia and Kenya to Tanzania and Mozambique

Panthera Leo Senegalensis (West African lion) – Western Africa from Senegal to Nigeria

Territorial cats, African Lions live in pride areas of up to tens of square miles depending upon the concentration of lions and prey in a particular region. Males regularly patrol the territory, marking it with scent from their paws and urine. At dusk and dawn they roar to establish their presence and warn off intruders. The roar is loudest among cats and can be heard up to a distance of five miles. A pride consists of one to four males and up to a dozen or more of females and young cubs. Females are generally related to each other and usually stay in a pride for the duration of their life whereas young males are kicked off by adults when they are between two to three years old. These young males then pursue a nomadic lifestyle, forming coalitions with other solitary males and hunting and surviving on their own. When they are four to five years old they are capable of taking over a pride of their own.

Next they move into the domain of resident males of an established pride and attempt to take over the territory and lionesses. This often results in a bloody and at times fatal battle. If the resident males lose out, they slink away and the nomads are quick to kill any cubs sired by previous males. This brings the females into estrus. The new males also kill or drive away any young males. The take over is often brutal and sometimes takes months.

After the lionesses have finally settled down, the new males have only a period of two to three years on average to produce cubs of their own that can successfully reach adulthood and propagate their genetic line before they are ousted as well. Females come into estrus year round and produce a litter of two to three cubs after a pregnancy lasting between three to four months. The young learn hunting by one year and are fully independent by two years of age. Maturity is reached by four years in females and five years in case of males. Lifespan is between twelve to fifteen years in the wild and around twenty five years in captivity.

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A Strategy For Easy Chicken Coop Cleaning and Odor Control

There are several ways to handle the drudgery of cleaning the Chicken coop and controlling odor. Some coops are built with a floor of chicken wire or metal screen that allows the waste to fall through and collected below. I am not an advocate of this design as it is a poor surface for the chickens to walk around on and it can make drafts within the coop difficult to control. Another option is to place straw over the floor of the coop, and simply remove and replace as necessary. This method is fine but as the straw becomes wet, it will produce odor and add humidity within the coop. Depending on the size of your flock, this could require daily replacement of the straw to maintain a clean and odor free environment.

My preferred method is sometimes called the deep litter method. With this method, the coop is filled with 4-6 inches of pine shavings. By raking the top spoiled material into the bottom of the pile and allowing fresh shavings to the top a virtual odor-free environment can be maintained. Over time the level of the mixture will compress and new shavings can be added to bring the level back up. To hasten the absorption of the wetness, some will mix in a small amount food grade DE (diatomceous earth) to the surface. Once or twice a year the mixture may be removed and added to the garden or compost pile. Aside from raking the poo into the mix every day or so, there is very little effort involved with this method. And I have found that there is virtually no odor; Visitors are always amazed when I show them the coop and there is no detectable odor.

Another strategy to some implement to the make the cleaning process more efficient is to provide a removable drip pan directly below the perch within the coop. Since the chickens will prefer to spend a great deal of time on the perch when they are inside the coop, a majority of the waste can be intercepted before it falls on the floor. By making this tray easily accessible, it can be removed every day or so and the contents dumped into the compost pile. This strategy is by no means required as some just prefer to keep it simple and use only the deep litter method with great success.

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